Spelling and Alphabet
Nouns and Word Order
Pre- and Suffixes
ES (to be)
IDIT (to go)
IMAT (to have)
DOLZX (have to)
Accent and pronunciation
PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES.
Explanation: the vowels or consonants in parentheses are optional and are used only to facilitate pronunciation. Their use (or not use) depends on the root to which they are attached. Generally, the optional vowels/consonants are used in such a way so we wouldn't have two vowels or two consonants following each other. Example: if the root ends with a consonant, then a consonant at the beginning of a suffix can be omitted; if the root ends with a vowel, then a vowel at the beginning of a suffix can be omitted. The most frequently used optional vowels and consonants are: "i", "e" and "n".
Slovio has a loose and flexible syntax typical of Slavic languages. The very specific adjective, verb and adverb endings make it possible to rearrange words in many different configurations, and still keep the clarity of meaning; one can even use the various rigid syntaxes typical of germanic, romance or chinese languages. The following simple rules of grammar are all you need for an exact and complete communication.
Nouns: don't have any special endings, don't have any declensions, have always the same form. Exceptions: 1) singular-plural, 2) subject-object, 3) direction.
-(i)s.= PLURAL. Plural nouns ending in a vowel are formed by adding -s. Plural nouns ending in a consonant are formed by adding -is. Examples: okno (window), oknos (windows); dom (house), domis (houses). (Only nouns have a plural form. Adjectives don't have any. Adjectives don't change their form.) In Slovio nouns plural is optional, and plural ending can be left out where it is clear from the context that we are dealing with more than one subject/object.
Word order: The adjectives usually come before the noun, but can come also after the noun. Unlike in English, the adjectives have to have the adjective ending -ju. "Dobrju mlodic". or "Mlodic dobrju."
Subject-Object: Normally the subject comes before the object. If we want to reverse the order we must denote the object with suffix "-(u)f" which is added to the object in cases where it is necessary to make it clear which noun is the subject. "Mlodic lubil mlodica." (Boy loved a girl). Or: "Mlodicaf lubil mlodic." Both sentences have the same meaning, only the subject/object order is reversed. As shown here, to make the meaning clear, in the second case we use the ending -(u)f. In the plural, the ending -(u)f becomes -(i)fs. If the word order is "normal" (subject before object) then no changes, no suffixes are necessary. If an object is preceded by a preposition, then we don't have to change the ending of the word, regardless of its position in the sentence. In fact after a preposition the object must not change its ending, regardless of its location in the sentence. Exception: when we want to indicate direction. New: Flexible grammar
Direction: The endings -(u)f, -(i)fs described above are also used to indicate direction. The direction-ending is added to the nouns regardless of the noun's position in a sentence and even if the noun is preceded by a preposition.
Examples: Peter sidijt na stul. (Peter is sitting on a chair.)
Peter sidijt na stuluf. (Peter is sitting down on a chair.) (Direction)
Peter idijt v sxkol. (Peter is walking inside school.)
Peter idijt v sxkoluf. (Peter is walking towards school.) (Direction.)
Peter idijt na gora. (Peter is walking on a mountain.)
Peter idijt na goraf. (Peter is going onto a mountain.) (Direction)
Peter sberijt gribis v les. (Peter is picking mushrooms in a forest.)
Peter bu idit sberit gribis v lesuf. (Peter will go to pick mushrooms into a forest.) (direction)
New: Flexible grammar
Genitive: The above described endings -(u)f, -(i)fs have been also used by Slovio speakers to express genitive. As far as we know this does not create any problems and ads clarity to the language. As far as we know similar usage exists also in Ido and Esperanto and it also does not create any problems. Your commnents and suggestions are welcome.
Click HERE (opens up in a separate window)
-ju = -(e)sk. There is no difference in the meaning between these 2 endings. It's up to the speaker which one where he prefers. However: the -(e)sk ending can denote also an adverb, and you should use it only in those cases where it won't make the meaning unclear or cause confusion. The advantage of using -(e)sk ending is that the same ending can be used to form both adjectives and adverbs.
-just = SLIGHTLY. -ju + st. (Equivalent to English -ish.) Examples: zxolt-ju (yellow), zxolt-just (yellowish, slightly yellow). (Another althernative is to use the prepositions "mal-" or "slab-" to express more or less the same thing. For example "slab-belju" = whitish.)
-(i)mozxju / -(i)mozxost / -(i)mozxuo = POSSIBILITY. The ending signifies possibility or ability to make something. Similar to English "-able". Example: vidit (see), vidimozxju (visible), vidimozxost (visibility).
-(i)m- / -(i)mju / -(i)most /-(i)muo = POSSIBILITY. (same as above but shorter) The ending signifies possibility or ability to make something. Similar to English "-able". Example: vidit (see), vidimju (visible), vidimost (visibility), vidimuo (visibly); mozg-cxistit (brainwash), mozg-cxistimju (brainwashable).
.-(i)nuzxju / -(i)nuzxost / -(i)nuzxuo= NECESSITY. The ending signifies necessity to make something. Similar to English "needs to be". Example: vidit (see), vidinuzxju (which needs to be seen); vidinuzxost (need to see something) .
-(i)dolzxju / -(i)dolzxost / -(i)dolzxuo = OBLIGATION. The ending signifies obligation to make something. Similar to English "must be". Example: vidit (see), vididolxju (which must be seen), vididolzxost (obligation to see something); . TOP
-uo = ADVERBS. Adverbs are formed by adding -uo: dobruo = well; bistruo = quickly. Just as with the adjectives, comparatives and superlatives are made using the words plus, bolsx, mensx, maks and min. dobruo = well, plus dobruo = better, etc...
-(e)sk This is the second possible way of forming adverbs. There is no difference in the meaning between the 2 endings -uo and -(e)sk. However: the -(e)sk ending is less exact because it can be also used to create adjectives and you should use it only in those cases where it won't make the meaning unclear or cause confusion. The advantage of using -(e)sk ending is that the same ending can be used both for adjectives and adverbs. This helps those who have problems with the grammar.
AND SUPERLATIVE ADJECTIVES: Comparative and superlative adjectives are
made using the words plus, bolsx, mensx, maks and min. For example:
COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE ADVERBS:
Comparative and superlative adverbs are made using the words plus, bolsx, mensx, maks and
min. For example:
-bju, -tju, -lju = passive adjective participles
-bsju = ACTIVE FUTURE PARTICIPLE. Add -sju to the -b of the future tense. (Rarely used in Slavic languages, but possible.)
-tsju = ACTIVE PRESENT PARTICIPLE. Add -sju to the -t of the neutral form. Examples: igrat (to play), igratsju (playing)
-lsju = ACTIVE PAST PARTICIPLE.. Add -sju to the -l of the past tense.
-bju = PASSIVE FUTURE PARTICIPLE. Add -ju to the -b of the future tense.
-tju = PASSIVE PRESENT PARTICIPLE. Add -ju to the -t of the neutral form. Examples: igrat (to play), igratju (being played)
-lju = PASSIVE PAST PARTICIPLE. Add -ju to the -l of the past tense. Examples: delat (to make), delalju (made). MORE EXAMPLES
CHANGE ACTIVE / PASSIVE:
-juvit = TO CHANGE SOMETHING (from outside) Verb formed from an adjective: -ju+vit. Examples: dobrju (good), dobrjuvit (make better, improve); velju (big), veljuvit (to enlarge, make bigger).
-juvsit = TO CHANGE ITSELF (form inside) Verb formed from an adjective: -ju+vsit. Examples: dobrju (good), dobrjuvsit (become better, improve itself); velju (big), veljuvsit (to grow up, to become bigger).
ADVERBIAL PARTICIPLES are formed in the following way.
-bsuo, -tsuo, -lsuo = active adverbial participles
-buo, -tuo, -luo = passive adverbial participles
Cxistibsuo on slusxal muzik. - Preparing to clean, he listened to music.
Cxistitsuo on slusxal muzik. - While cleaning, he listened to music.
Cxistilsuo on slusxal muzik. - Having cleaned, he listened to music.
Cxistibuo on slusxal muzik. - Preparing to be cleaned, he listened to music.
Cxistituo on slusxal muzik. - While being cleaned, he listened to music.
Cxistiluo on slusxal muzik. - Having been cleaned, he listened to music.)
Please read: Advice to Slovio Translators
(Old, before January 2009:
-ts = WHILE DOING . (present) (Replace the -t of the neutral form with -ts). (Similar to one form of English -ing.) For example: Divats krasju zxen, on kupil kvetis. (While watching a beautiful woman, he bought flowers.); Upotrebits letidlo pridime dnes. (Using airplane we will come today.); Upotrebits voz pridime zavtra. (Using car we will come tomorrow.) MORE EXAMPLES
-ls = HAVING DONE. (past) (Replace the -t of the neutral form with -ls). For example: Vidils krasju zxen, on kupil kvetis. (Having seen a beautiful woman, he bought flowers.)
-bs = PREPARING TO DO. (future) (Replace the -t of the neutral form with -bs).
Cxitabs knig on pitil voda. - Preparing to read a book, he drank water.
Cxitats knig on pitil voda. - While reading a book, he drank water.
Cxitals knig on pitil voda. - Having read a book, he drank water. MORE EXAMPLES )
The words (nouns) as such have no gender. They are all gender-neutral. Also the majority of words denoting living beings, animals, plants etc are gender-neutral. If we want to be specific that a certain living thing is of a male sex or of a female sex, or that it is a young offspring we use the endings: -ic / -nic (male), -ica / -nica (female), -incxa / -nincxa (young, offspring).
-(n)ic = MALE.
-(n)ica = FEMALE.
-(n)incxa = OFFSPRING, YOUNG.
Examples: kot (cat, a general gender-free term), kot-ic (tom-cat), kot-ica (female cat), kot-incxa (kitten); lud (human, person), lud-ic (man), lud-ica (woman), lud-incxa (child), lud-is (people), lud-stvo (humanity). TOP QUALITY.
bez- = OPPOSITE. Denotes the direct opposite. Examples: dobrju (good), bezdobrju (bad).
ne- = LACK OF QUALITY. This is somewhat less strong, less negative than bez-. Examples: dobrju (good), nedobrju (not good).
pra- = REMOTE. (English: grand-grand-...) Denotes something very old (or very young) or a distant ancestor, distant age, distant descendant. Examples: otec (father), pra-otec (distant grandfather);
zlo- = BAD; defect, mean. (English mis-). Examples: upotrebit (use), zlo-upotrebit (misuse).
pred- = BEFORE. Example:
pseudo- = FALSE. Example:
vel- = BIG. Examples. grod (town), vel-grod (city). Velkrasju mlodica. (Very beautiful girl.)
mal- = SMALL. Examples: grod (town), mal-grod (village).
pol- = HALF. Semi, demi, mid-. Examples: pol-den (noon), pol-nocx (midnight).
nad- = ABOVE, SUPERIOR, OVER-. Examples: nad-velju (over-sized), nad-razumju (of superior wisdom).
pod- = VICE, UNDER. Denotes deputy, vice or a lower function. Examples: prezident (president), pod-prezident (vice president). It can also denote describe something that is lower. For example: .......
proti- = ANTI. Opposite or opposition to something else. Examples: proti-virus (anti-virus).
slab- = A BIT, WEAK. To do something only a bit; to be a bit like something. Examples: belju (white), slabbelju (whitish); otkrit (open), slabotkrit (open a bit).
mnog- = MULTI-. Examples: cvet (color), mnog-cvet-ju (multicolored), narod (nation), mnog-narod-ju (multi-national).
din- = UNI-. Examples: cvet (color), din-cvet-ju (one colored).
mezxu- = INTER-. Examples: mezxu-narod-ju (international); mezxu-kontinent-ju (intercontinental).
so- = WITH, TOGETHER. (similar to English co-, con-). Examples: robit (work), so-robit (cooperate); vrem (time), so-vrem-ju (contemporary), so-vrem-uo (at the same time). Din (one), so-din (union), so-dinit (to unify, join), so-dinie (unification), so-viazat (tie together).
samo- = AUTO-. Denotes an automatic device or machine. Examples: samo-let (airplane); samo-ogen (lighter), samo-var (water cooker).
(PLACE / SCIENCE)
BEGINNING - END
UNIVERSAL PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES.
Other Slovio prefixes und Suffixes will be discussed in later versions. Your suggestions and definitions are welcome.
FLEXIBLE GRAMMAR, ORTHOGRAPHY AND
SOME IMPORTANT WORDS:
PRONUNCIATION AND SPELLING.
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