The vocabulary of Slovio is based on that of the largest European language group, and
includes many internationally known words from Latin, English, French, German, Spanish
etc. Because Slovio is based mainly on the mutually intelligible Slavic languages, as soon
as one learns Slovio it should be possible to communicate with over 400 million people
around the world, and especially in such countries as: Poland, Russia, Ukraine, Czech
Republic, Bulgaria, Slovakia, Croatia, Macedonia, Bosnia, Slovenia, Kazakhstan, Belarus,
Moldavia, etc. The flexibility and the richness of the Slavic languages lies in their
ability to form new words with prefixes and sufixes. This ability of the Slavic languages
had been copied by Esperanto and by most other planned languages. Naturally, Slovio has
this ability too.
Words of particular types are in most cases indicated by their endings (suffixes), and
this makes it easy to see the structure of sentences. The root of each word is never
varied. Most words have special endings, other words (nouns, some verb forms,
prepositions, conjunctions and some adverbs) do not have any special suffixes.
PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES.
Explanation: the vowels or consonants in parentheses are
optional and are used only to facilitate pronunciation. Their use (or not use) depends on
the root to which they are attached. Generally, the optional vowels/consonants are used in
such a way so we wouldn't have two vowels or two consonants following each other. Example:
if the root ends with a consonant, then a consonant at the beginning of a suffix can be
omitted; if the root ends with a vowel, then a vowel at the beginning of a suffix can be
omitted. The optional vowel and consonant most frequently used are: "i",
"e" and "n".
NOUNS and WORD ORDER:
Nouns: don't have any special endings, don't have any inclinations, have
always the same form. Exceptions: singular-plural, and subject-object.
-(i)s.= PLURAL. Plural nouns ending in a vowel are formed by
adding -s. Plural nouns ending in a consonant are formed by adding -is. Examples: okno
(window), oknos (windows); dom (house), domis (houses). (Only nouns have a plural form.
Adjectives don't have a any.)
Word order: The adjective can be before or after the noun, but unlike in
English, it has to have the adjective ending -ya. "Dobrya mlodic". or
Subject-Object: Normally the subject comes before the object. If we want to reverse the
order we must denote the subject with suffix "-(u)m" which is
added to the subject in cases where it is necessary to make clear which noun is the
subject. "Mlodic lubil mlodica." (Boy loved a girl). Or: "Mlodicam
lubil mlodic." Both sentences have the same meaning only the subject/object order are
reversed. As shown here, to make the meaning clear, we use the ending -(u)m. In plural,
the ending -(u)m becomes -(i)ms. If the word order is "normal"
(subject before object) then no changes, no suffixes are necessary.
-va = FEMALE FAMILY NAMES. The ending is added to family
names to distinguish between a man and a woman.
-ya or -(e)skya =
ADJECTIVES. These two forms are equal and have the same meaning. It is up to the user to
decide which form he/she prefers to use and when. Examples: dobrya = good; velya =
big; silaya = strong. As in English, adjectives do not change their form. They may
be placed either before (as is usual in English) or after (as is usual in Spanish) the
noun which they qualify. For example, zelonya trava (green grass) or trava zelonya, velya
dom (big house) or dom velya. Adjectives don't have a plural form.
COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES: Comparatives and superlatives are made using the words
plus, minus, maksim and minim. For example: plus velya =
bigger, and minus velya = less big, maksim
velya = the biggest, minim razumya = the least wise, mlodya =
young, plus mlodya = yonger, maksim mlodya = the youngest. Opposites are formed with
preposition bez-: dobrya = good, bezdobrya = bad, opasya = dangerous, bezopasya = safe,
opasnost = danger, bezopasnost = safety, opasuo = dangerously, bezopasuo = safely.
-voi = BELONG. The ending signifies ownership, or a
strong relationship between the adjective and the noun.. Example: Petervoi automobil. / Peter's car. // Natasxavoi cxai. /
-(n)ost = QUALITY. Formation of a noun from an
adjective. Equivalent to English -ness. Examples: dobr-ya (good), dobr-ost (goodness),
vel-ya (big), velnost (size), bistr-ya (fast), bistr-ost (speed).
-uo = ADVERBS. Adverbs are formed by adding -uo: dobruo =
well; bistruo = quickly.
The verb roots can have various endings; they often (but not always) end
with a vowel. The neutral is formed by adding -(i)t to the
root. The neutral form is the basic form, from this form are derived all the other
forms, simply by replacing the "t" with the other alternate endings. The future,
present, the past and the conditional tenses can be formed with the use of help words: BU
(will do, will be), ES (does, is), BIL (did, has done, was), BIBIL (would have done, would
have been), or by the replacement of the -t of the neutral form with -b
(future), -l (past), -lbi
(conditional). In the present tense, the -t is simply removed. The imperative form
is created by replacing the -t with -tei. More
detailed discussion follows further in this section.
-(i)vit = ALTERNATE VERB FORMATION (verb from noun). In some
cases of verb formation from a noun to make the meaning clearer we add -(i)vit. Example:
cxudo (wonder), cxudo-vit (admire, admire with awe). All the rules described above apply
in the same way.
-nya = PASSIVE PRESENT PARTICIPLE. Replace the -t of the
neutral form with -nya. Examples: igrat (to play), igranya (being played)
-cya = ACTIVE PRESENT PARTICIPLE. Replace the -t of the
neutral form with -cya. Examples: igrat (to play), igracya (playing)
-va- = DURATION, REPETITION. (In the past as English
"used to"). To denote an activity of long duration or one that repeats itself we
insert -va- before the -t of the neutral form. Examples: ya cxudovil (I wondered),
ya cxudovival (I used to wonder).
-nie = ACTION. (Replace the -t of the neutral from with -nie).
The suffix -nie means, activity, action. Examples: vidit (to see), vidinie
(seeing, vision). This is how we can derive nouns from verbs.
The words as such have no gender. They are all gender-neutral. Also the majority of words
denoting living things, animals, plants etc are sex neutral. If we want to be specific
that a certain living thing is of a male sex or of a female sex, or that it is a young
offspring we use the endings: -ic (male), -ica (female), -incxa (young, offspring).
-(n)ic = MALE.
-(n)ica = FEMALE.
-(n)incxa = OFFSPRING, YOUNG.
Examples: kot (cat, a general gender-free term), kot-ic (tom-cat), kot-ica (female cat),
kot-incxa (kitten); lud (human, person), lud-ic (man), lud-ica (woman), lud-incxa (child),
bez- = OPPOSITE or the lack of a quality. Denotes the direct
opposite. Examples: dobrya (good), bezdobrya (bad).
nai- = THE-MOST. Example: Naikrasya drugica.
(The most beautiful girl.)
pre- = VERY. Example: Prekrasyai drugica. (Very beautiful girl.)
pra- = REMOTE. (English: grand-grand-...) Denotes something
very old (or very young) or a distant ancestor, distant age, distant descendant. Examples:
otec (father), pra-otec (distant grandfather);
zlo- = BAD; defect, mean. (English mis-). Examples: upotrebit (use),
vel- = BIG. Examples. grad (town), vel-grad (city).
mal- = SMALL. Examples: grad (town), mal-grad (village).
pol- = HALF. Semi, demi, mid-. Examples: pol-den (noon),
nad- = ABOVE, SUPERIOR. Examples:
pod- = VICE, UNDER. Denotes deputy, vice or a lower function.
Examples: prezident (president), pod-prezident (vice president). It can also denote
describe something that is lower. For example: .......
proti- = ANTI. Opposite or opposition to something else.
mnog- = MULTI-. Examples: cvet (color), mnog-cvet-ya
(multicolored), narod (nation), mnog-narod-ya (multi-naitonal).
so- = WITH, TOGETHER. (similar to English co-). Examples:
robotat (work), so-robotat (cooperate).
-(i)vo = MATERIAL. Example: topl-ya (warm), topl-it (to heat),
topl-ivo (heating fuel), plat-it (to pay), plat-ivo (currency), pali-t (to burn), pali-vo
-(n)in = MATERIAL. To denote a thing originating from certain
material. Example: drev (tree), drev-in (wood), goviad (cattle), goviad-in (beef), svin
(swine, pig), svin-in (pork).
-(n)ina = UNIVERSAL. A universal undefined suffix to denote
something in someway related to the root. Examples: pecx-it (bake), pecx-ina (oven),
-lka = THING (from verb). Simply replace the -t of the
neutral verb form with -lka. Examples: igrat (to play), igralka
-(i)lo = THING (usu from verb). Simply replace the -t of the
neutral verb form with -lo. The suffix -lo means a thing used (passively) for a specific
purpose. Examples: umivat (to wash), umivalo (sink).
-(i)dlo = TOOL (usu from verb). The suffix -(i)dlo means
a tool used (actively) for a specific purpose. Examples: let-it (to fly), let-idlo
-k, -(n)ak, -(n)ek, -(n)ok,
-(n)ov = THING . Examples:
-(e)tok = THING. Examples: pit (to drink) na-pi-tok (a drink).
-(e)cxka = THING. Examples: side-t (to sit), side-cxka (a
-(n)ar = COLLECTION OF THINGS. (See also
PERSON OR OCCUPATION.
-(i)tel = OCCUPATION. (from a verb) Example: ucxi-t (teach),
-(l)ec = PERSON. Gender neutral.
= DOER. (neutral, male, female) The ending , signifies a person who is doing
something... rob = work, robilnik = worker,
-(i)nik = PERSON. The ending , signifies a person in some way related
to the root of the word. Examples: slep-ya (blind), slepnik (a blind person)
rob = work, robnik = worker,
-(n)ist = FOLLOWER. Example: komunizm (communism), komun-ist
-(n)an, -(n)ian = MEMBER.
Member of a group, of a nation, or of a national group.
-(i)lna = ROOM. The suffix -lna means a room used for a
certain specific purpouse. So for example from the verb spa-t (to sleep)
we get spa-lna (bedroom, sleeping room); and from the verb eda-t
(to eat) we get eda-lna (dining room). Or from the word vana
(bathtub) we get the word vana-lna (bathroom); umiva-t
(wash), umiva-lna (washroom), zabava-t (entertain), zabava-lna
(living room). cxai (tea), cxai-lna (tea-room), kafe
(coffee) kafe-lna (coffee room). igra (play),
igra-lna (play room).
-(n)isko = PLACE. Examples: let (flight), let-nisko (airport),
igra (play), igra-nisko (playfield).
-(n)ia = COUNTRY. Bulgar (Bulgarian), Bulgar-ia (Bulgaria).
-(i)stan = COUNTRY. Bulgar (Bulgarian), Bulgar-istan
BEGINNING - END - COMPLETION.
za- = BEGINNING. Beginning of an action. ("on").
ot- = ENDING, REMOVAL. Ending of an action ("off"),
or removal of something into the distance.
Examples: klucx (key), za-klucx-it (to lock), ot-klucx-it (unlock); viaza-t (to tie),
za-viaza-t (to tie together), ot-viaza-t (to untie).
vi- = COMPLETION / OUT OF. The prefix vi- usually signifies an
action that has been completed. But it is a prefix that can take on several different
meanings. More exact deffinition will be discussed later.
tut- = CLOSENESS. The prefix denotes something very close.
tam- = REMOTENESS. The prefix denotes something distant,
pri- = ATTACHMENT. Prefix pri- means to make something close,
to attach something. For examle viaza-t (to tie) and pri-viaza-t (tie onto something).
raz- = SEPARATION. Same as dis-. Examples: delat (do, make),
raz-delat (to separate, divide).
mezxu- = INTER-. Examples: mezxunarodya (international).
pro- = XXXXXXX. Examples:
-(n)izm = MOVEMENT. Political or philosophical movement. (fasxizm,
-ie = ACTIVITY. Similar to english suffix
"-ment". Examples: razv-it (to develop), razv-it-ie (development),
-stvo = COLLECTION OF beings, organizations or things. (See also
"-(n)ar"). Example: lud (human), ludstvo (mankind, humankind), zxen (woman),
zxenstvo (woman-kind), drug (buddy), drugstvo (team).
-ba = ............. Examples: sluzx-it (to
serve), sluzx-ba (service).
UNDEFINED, UNIVERSAL PREFIXES.
po- = UNIVERSAL prefix. This is a universal prefix which
is used to create new words from existing roots. This is used in cases where the
relationship between the root and the new word is less clear, more difficult to define.
Example: krug (circle), pokrug (around), utro (morning), poutro (in the morning), vecxer
(evening), povecxer (in the evening), ruka (arm), poruka (glove), noga (leg), ponoga
u-, pu- = other universal prefixes.
Other Slavic prefixes und Suffixes will be
discussed in a later version. Your suggestions and definitions are welcome.
LI is the universal question word. A statement is changed to a
question not by changing the word order, but simply by starting the sentence with
"LI". (To turn any sentence into a question, simply add "LI" to the
beginning of the sentence.)
Examples: On es mlodya. / He is young. // Li on es
mlodya? / Is he young?
If a sentence contains a question word already, then we don't have to add "LI"
to its beginning. Examples: Sxto es tasxto? / What is that?
// Gde ti ide? / Where are you going?
The definite article (in English "the") is "ta"
as in ta zxen (the woman), and ta pcxelas (the bees). Unlike English and some other
languages in Slovio there is no indefinite article. This is a compromise between
languages which have two articles, and those with none. The word "ta" is
invariable, like English "the" (but unlike the corresponding words in Italian,
German, French and Spanish - which have variable articles). There is also no (grammatical)
gender in Slovio, consequently no need to learn wheather a word is masculine or feminine.