PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES.
Explanation: the vowels or consonants in parentheses are
optional and are used only to facilitate pronunciation. Their use (or not use) depends on
the root to which they are attached. Generally, the optional vowels/consonants are used in
such a way so we wouldn't have two vowels or two consonants following each other. Example:
if the root ends with a consonant, then a consonant at the beginning of a suffix can be
omitted; if the root ends with a vowel, then a vowel at the beginning of a suffix can be
omitted. The optional vowel and consonant most frequently used are: "i",
"e" and "n".
NOUNS and WORD ORDER:
Nouns: don't have any special endings, don't have any inclinations, have
always the same form. Exceptions: singular-plural, and subject-object.
-(i)s.= PLURAL. Plural nouns ending in a vowel are formed by
adding -s. Plural nouns ending in a consonant are formed by adding -is. Examples: okno
(window), oknos (windows); dom (house), domis (houses). (Only nouns have a plural form.
Adjectives don't have a any. Adjectives don't change form.)
Word order: The adjective can be before or after the noun, but unlike in
English, it has to have the adjective ending -ya. "Dobrya mlodic". or
Subject-Object: Normally the subject comes before the object. If we want
to reverse the order we must denote the subject with suffix "-(u)f"
which is added to the subject in cases where it is necessary to make clear which noun is
the subject. "Mlodic lubil mlodica." (Boy loved a girl). Or:
"Mlodicaf lubil mlodic." Both sentences have the same meaning only the
subject/object order are reversed. As shown here, to make the meaning clear, we use the
ending -(u)f. In plural, the ending -(u)f becomes -(i)fs. If the word
order is "normal" (subject before object) then no changes, no suffixes are
necessary. If an subject (or object) is preceded by a preposition, then we don't have to
change the ending of the word, regardless of its posision in the sentence. In fact after
preposition the subject must not change its ending, regardless of its location in the
sentence. Exception: when we want to indicate direction.
Direction: The endings -(u)f, -(i)fs described above are also used to
indicate direction. Examle: Peter es vo sxkola. (Peter is in school.), Peter idet vo
sxkolaf. (Peter is going to school.) The direction-ending is added to the nouns regardless
of the noun's position in a sentence.
-(o)va = FEMALE FAMILY NAMES. The ending is added to
family names to distinguish between a man and a woman. TOP
-ya or -(e)skya =
ADJECTIVES. These two forms are equal and have the same meaning. It is up to the user to
decide which form he/she prefers to use and when. Examples: dobrya = good; velya =
big; silaya = strong. As in English, adjectives do not change their form. They may
be placed either before (as is usual in English) or after (as is usual in Spanish) the
noun which they qualify. For example, zelonya trava (green grass) or trava zelonya, velya
dom (big house) or dom velya. Adjectives don't have a plural form.
COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES: Comparatives and superlatives are made using the words
plus, minus, maksim and minim. For example: plus velya =
bigger, and minus velya = less big, maksim
velya = the biggest, minim razumya = the least wise, mlodya =
young, plus mlodya = yonger, maksim mlodya = the youngest. Opposites are formed with
preposition bez-: dobrya = good, bezdobrya = bad, opasya = dangerous, bezopasya = safe,
opasnost = danger, bezopasnost = safety, opasuo = dangerously, bezopasuo = safely.
-voi = BELONG. The ending signifies ownership, or a
strong relationship between the adjective and the noun.. Example: Petervoi automobil. / Peter's car. // Natasxavoi cxai. /
-(n)ost = QUALITY. Formation of a noun from an
adjective. Equivalent to English -ness. Examples: dobr-ya (good), dobr-ost (goodness),
vel-ya (big), velnost (size), bistr-ya (fast), bistr-ost (speed). TOP
-uo = ADVERBS. Adverbs are formed by adding -uo: dobruo =
well; bistruo = quickly. TOP
The verb roots can have various endings; they often (but not always) end
with a vowel. The neutral is formed by adding -(i)t to the
root. This is the rule with roots ending with wovels a, e, i, u; in case of root
ending with "o" use "-vit" described below. The neutral form is the
basic form, from this form are derived all the other forms, simply by replacing the
"t" with the other alternate endings. The future, present, the past and the
conditional tenses can be formed with the use of help words: BU (will do, will be), ES
(does, is), BIL (did, has done, was), BIBIL (would have done, would have been), or by the
replacement of the -t of the neutral form with -b (future), -l
(past), -lbi (conditional). The imperative form is
created by replacing the -t with -y. In the
present tense we can either use the neutral form or replace it with various
person-specific endings. More detailed discussion elsewhere. All the verbs follow the
example of IDIT (to go). Exceptions are only
these verbs: BIT (to be), MOZX (can), HCE
(want), DOLZX (have to).
Why are there up to 3 different ways one can use the
verbs? This is to give the language more flexibility and the ability to absorb and use any
words from any language without change. For example if we have an english verb "to
extrapolate" and don't know how to translate it, we could use it in Slovio as:
"ya bu extrapolate, ya es extrapolate, ya bil extrapolate, etc." Let's not
forget that in other languages there are many more verb forms. And in such planed
languages as Esperanto or Ido we cannot use unaltered foreign verbs; first we have to
alter them and add to them appropriate suffixes, and only then we can use them.
-(i)vit = ALTERNATE VERB FORMATION (verb from noun). In some
cases of verb formation from a noun to make the meaning clearer we add -(i)vit. Example:
cxudo (wonder), cxudo-vit (admire, admire with awe); milo (soap), milo-vit (to soap). As
seen here if the root ends with "o" then usual verb formation is by adding after
the "o" ending "-vit". All the rules described above apply in the same
-nya = PASSIVE PRESENT PARTICIPLE. Replace the -t of the
neutral form with -nya. Examples: igrat (to play), igranya (being played)
-cya = ACTIVE PRESENT PARTICIPLE. Replace the -t of the
neutral form with -cya. Examples: igrat (to play), igracya (playing)
-va- = DURATION, REPETITION. (In the past as English
"used to"). To denote an activity of long duration or one that repeats itself we
insert -va- before the -t of the neutral form. Examples: ya cxudovil (I wondered),
ya cxudovival (I used to wonder).
-nie = ACTION. (Replace the -t of the neutral from with -nie).
The suffix -nie means, activity, action. Examples: vidit (to see), vidinie
(seeing, vision). This is how we can derive nouns from verbs. TOP
Other Prefixes and
The words as such have no gender. They are all gender-neutral. Also the majority of words
denoting living things, animals, plants etc are sex-neutral. If we want to be specific
that a certain living thing is of a male sex or of a female sex, or that it is a young
offspring we use the endings: -ic (male), -ica (female), -incxa (young, offspring).
-(n)ic = MALE.
-(n)ica = FEMALE.
-(n)incxa = OFFSPRING, YOUNG.
Examples: kot (cat, a general gender-free term), kot-ic (tom-cat), kot-ica (female cat),
kot-incxa (kitten); lud (human, person), lud-ic (man), lud-ica (woman), lud-incxa (child),
lud-is (people). TOP
bez- = OPPOSITE or the lack of a quality. Denotes the direct
opposite. Examples: dobrya (good), bezdobrya (bad).
nai- = THE-MOST. Example: Naikrasya drugica.
(The most beautiful girl.)
pre- = VERY. Example: Prekrasyai drugica. (Very beautiful girl.)
pra- = REMOTE. (English: grand-grand-...) Denotes something
very old (or very young) or a distant ancestor, distant age, distant descendant. Examples:
otec (father), pra-otec (distant grandfather);
zlo- = BAD; defect, mean. (English mis-). Examples: upotrebit (use),
vel- = BIG. Examples. grad (town), vel-grad (city).
mal- = SMALL. Examples: grad (town), mal-grad (village).
pol- = HALF. Semi, demi, mid-. Examples: pol-den (noon),
nad- = ABOVE, SUPERIOR. Examples:
pod- = VICE, UNDER. Denotes deputy, vice or a lower function.
Examples: prezident (president), pod-prezident (vice president). It can also denote
describe something that is lower. For example: .......
proti- = ANTI. Opposite or opposition to something else.
mnog- = MULTI-. Examples: cvet (color), mnog-cvet-ya
(multicolored), narod (nation), mnog-narod-ya (multi-naitonal).
so- = WITH, TOGETHER. (similar to English co-). Examples:
robotat (work), so-robotat (cooperate). TOP
-(i)vo = MATERIAL. Example: topl-ya (warm), topl-it (to heat),
topl-ivo (heating fuel), plat-it (to pay), plat-ivo (currency), pal-it (to burn), pal-ivo
-(n)in = MATERIAL. To denote a thing originating from certain
material. Example: drev (tree), drev-in (wood), goviad (cattle), goviad-in (beef), svin
(swine, pig), svin-in (pork).
-(n)ina = UNIVERSAL. A universal undefined suffix to denote
something in someway related to the root. Examples: pecx-it (bake), pecx-ina (oven),
-lka = THING (from verb). Simply replace the -t of the
neutral verb form with -lka. Examples: igrat (to play), igralka
-(i)lo = THING (usu from verb). Simply replace the -t of the
neutral verb form with -lo. The suffix -lo means a thing used (passively) for a specific
purpose. Examples: umivat (to wash), umivalo (sink).
-(i)dlo = TOOL (usu from verb). The suffix -(i)dlo means
a tool used (actively) for a specific purpose. Examples: let-it (to fly), let-idlo
-k, -(n)ak, -(n)ek, -(n)ok,
-(n)ov = THING . Examples:
-(e)tok = THING. Examples: pit (to drink) na-pi-tok (a drink).
-(e)cxka = THING. Examples: side-t (to sit), side-cxka (a
-(n)ar = COLLECTION OF THINGS. (See also
"-stvo"). Examples: TOP
PERSON OR OCCUPATION.
-(i)tel = OCCUPATION. (from a verb) Example: ucxi-t (teach),
-(l)ec = PERSON. Gender neutral.
= DOER. (neutral, male, female) The ending , signifies a person who is doing
something... rob = work, robilnik = worker,
-(i)nik = PERSON. The ending , signifies a person in some way related
to the root of the word. Examples: slep-ya (blind), slepnik (a blind person)
rob = work, robnik = worker,
-(n)ist = FOLLOWER. Example: komunizm (communism), komun-ist
-(n)an, -(n)ian = MEMBER.
Member of a group, of a nation, or of a national group. TOP
-(i)lna = ROOM. The suffix -lna means a room used for a
certain specific purpouse. So for example from the verb spa-t (to sleep)
we get spa-lna (bedroom, sleeping room); and from the verb eda-t
(to eat) we get eda-lna (dining room). Or from the word vana
(bathtub) we get the word vana-lna (bathroom); umiva-t
(wash), umiva-lna (washroom), zabava-t (entertain), zabava-lna
(living room). cxai (tea), cxai-lna (tea-room), kafe
(coffee) kafe-lna (coffee room). igra (play),
igra-lna (play room).
-(n)isko = PLACE. Examples: let (flight), let-nisko (airport),
igra (play), igra-nisko (playfield).
-(n)ia = COUNTRY. Bulgar (Bulgarian), Bulgar-ia (Bulgaria).
-(i)stan = COUNTRY. Bulgar (Bulgarian), Bulgar-istan
BEGINNING - END - COMPLETION.
za- = BEGINNING. Beginning of an action. ("on").
ot- = ENDING, REMOVAL. Ending of an action ("off"),
or removal of something into the distance.
Examples: klucx (key), za-klucx-it (to lock), ot-klucx-it (unlock); viaza-t (to tie),
za-viaza-t (to tie together), ot-viaza-t (to untie).
vi- = COMPLETION / OUT OF. The prefix vi- usually signifies an
action that has been completed. But it is a prefix that can take on several different
meanings. More exact deffinition will be discussed later. TOP
tut- = CLOSENESS. The prefix denotes something very close.
tam- = REMOTENESS. The prefix denotes something distant,
pri- = ATTACHMENT. Prefix pri- means to make something close,
to attach something. For examle viaza-t (to tie) and pri-viaza-t (tie onto something).
raz- = SEPARATION. Same as dis-. Examples: delat (do, make),
raz-delat (to separate, divide).
mezxu- = INTER-. Examples: mezxunarodya (international).
pro- = XXXXXXX. Examples:
-(n)izm = MOVEMENT. Political or philosophical movement. (fasxizm,
-ie = ACTIVITY. Similar to english suffix
"-ment". Examples: razv-it (to develop), razv-it-ie (development),
-stvo = COLLECTION OF beings, organizations or things. (See also
"-(n)ar"). Example: lud (human), ludstvo (mankind, humankind), zxen (woman),
zxenstvo (woman-kind), drug (buddy), drugstvo (team).
-ba = ............. Examples: sluzx-it (to
serve), sluzx-ba (service).
-(o)m = DURING, WITHIN. Examples: utro (morning), utro-m (in
the morning), krug (circle), krug-om (around, in the vicinity).
UNDEFINED, UNIVERSAL PREFIXES.
po- = UNIVERSAL prefix. This is a universal prefix which
is used to create new words from existing roots. This is used in cases where the
relationship between the root and the new word is less clear, more difficult to define.
Example: krug (circle), pokrug (around), utro (morning), poutro (in the morning), vecxer
(evening), povecxer (in the evening), ruka (arm), poruka (glove), noga (leg), ponoga
u-, pu- = other universal prefixes.
Other Slavic prefixes und Suffixes will be
discussed in a later version. Your suggestions and definitions are welcome.
LI is the universal question word. A statement is changed to a
question not by changing the word order, but simply by starting the sentence with
"LI". (To turn any sentence into a question, simply add "LI" to the
beginning of the sentence.)
Examples: On es mlodya. / He is young. // Li on es
mlodya? / Is he young?
If a sentence contains a question word already, then we don't have to add "LI"
to its beginning. Examples: Sxto es tasxto? / What is that?
// Gde ti ide? / Where are you going? TOP
The definite article (in English "the") is "ta"
as in ta zxen (the woman), and ta pcxelas (the bees). Unlike English and some other
languages in Slovio there is no indefinite article. This is a compromise between
languages which have two articles, and those with none. The word "ta" is
invariable, like English "the" (but unlike the corresponding words in Italian,
German, French and Spanish - which have variable articles). There is also no (grammatical)
gender in Slovio, consequently no need to learn wheather a word is masculine or feminine.